In this article we will discuss NTP Operation, will make brief discussion on NTP Operation, In last article we discuss about Setting the System Clock – NTP.
NTP networks use a hierarchical system of time sources. Each level in this hierarchical system is called a stratum. The stratum level is defined as the number of hop counts from the authoritative source.
The synchronized time is distributed across the network using NTP. The figure displays a sample NTP network. NTP servers arranged in three levels showing the three strata. Stratum 1 is connected to Stratum 0 clocks.
An NTP network gets the time from authoritative time sources. These authoritative time sources, also referred to as stratum 0 devices, are high-precision timekeeping devices assumed to be accurate and with little or no delay associated with them. Stratum 0 devices are represented by the clock in the figure.
The stratum 1 devices are directly connected to the authoritative time sources. They act as the primary network time standard.
Stratum 2 and Lower
The stratum 2 servers are connected to stratum 1 devices through network connections. Stratum 2 devices, such as NTP clients, synchronize their time using the NTP packets from stratum 1 servers. They could also act as servers for stratum 3 devices.
Smaller stratum numbers indicate that the server is closer to the authorized time source than larger stratum numbers. The larger the stratum number, the lower the stratum level. The max hop count is 15. Stratum 16, the lowest stratum level, indicates that a device is unsynchronized. Time servers on the same stratum level can be configured to act as a peer with other time servers on the same stratum level for backup or verification of time.
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