In this article we will discuss Packet Filtering, will make brief discussion on Packet Filtering, In last article we discuss about What is an ACL?
An ACL is a sequential list of permit or deny statements, known as access control entries (ACEs). ACEs are also commonly called ACL statements.
When network traffic passes through an interface configured with an ACL, the router compares the information within the packet against each ACE, in sequential order, to determine if the packet matches one of the ACEs. This process is called packet filtering.
Packet filtering controls access to a network by analyzing the incoming and outgoing packets and forwarding them or discarding them based on given criteria. Packet filtering can occur at Layer 3 or Layer 4. Standard ACLs only filter at Layer 3. Extended ACLs filter at Layer 3 and Layer 4.
The source IPv4 address is the filtering criteria set in each ACE of a standard IPv4 ACL. A router configured with a standard IPv4 ACL extracts the source IPv4 address from the packet header. The router starts at the top of the ACL and compares the address to each ACE sequentially. When a match is made, the router carries out the instruction, either permitting or denying the packet. After a match is made, the remaining ACEs in the ACL, if any, are not analyzed. If the source IPv4 address does not match any ACEs in the ACL, the packet is discarded.
The last statement of an ACL is always an implicit deny. This statement is automatically inserted at the end of each ACL even though it is not physically present. The implicit deny blocks all traffic. Because of this implicit deny, an ACL that does not have at least one permit statement will block all traffic.