Physical Layer

In this article we will discuss Physical Layer, will make brief discussion on Physical Layer, In last article we discuss about Bus topology.

In the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking, the physical layer or layer 1 is the first and lowest layer. This layer may be implemented by a PHY chip. The physical layer consists of the electronic circuit transmission technologies of a network.

Physical layer is the only layer of OSI network model which actually deals with the physical connectivity of two different stations. This layer defines the hardware equipment, cabling, wiring, frequencies, pulses used to represent binary signals etc. Physical layer provides its services to Data-link layer.

Devices that operate at the physical layer include repeaters, hubs, network interface cards (NICs), cables and connectors. Repeaters are used to regenerate electrical signals that have attenuated as a result of distance. This layer is not concerned with the meaning of the bits and deals with the setup of physical connection to the network and with transmission and reception of signals.

Physical Layer deals with the hardware of networks such as cabling. The major protocols used by this layer include Bluetooth, PON, OTN, DSL, IEEE.802.11, IEEE.802.3, L431 and TIA 449.

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